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Volume II

Welcome to Volume II of the King's College London ADR ODR Journal.
This year, we are proud to present a collection of articles that delve into the evolving landscape of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) and online dispute resolution (ODR). This edition compiles a diverse array of articles, insights, and case notes that reflect the dynamic nature of ADR and ODR mechanisms.
Our authors examine the intricate relationship between investment arbitration and national sovereignty in investor-state disputes, exploring the tension between protectionism and liberalisation, and the ways in which nations navigate economic policies alongside international obligations. They also analyse the potential for mediation to play a more prominent role in this arena as a viable alternative to arbitration, owing to its capacity to facilitate more amicable and efficient resolutions.
Another significant theme addressed is the impact of digital transformation on dispute resolution, particularly the integration of ODR within the legal frameworks of developing nations, underscoring the importance of innovation in enhancing access to justice.
Moreover, this volume discusses the crucial issue of inclusivity and diversity within arbitration. The need for a more representative and equitable system is emphasised, addressing biases that impede progress. Proposed measures to promote greater inclusivity aim to enhance the legitimacy of arbitration. Further, in addition to evaluating ADR as a substitute for litigation, with discussions on Nari Adalats and ODR, this volume also elucidates how ADR has influenced traditional litigation practices.
Collectively, these articles reflect the evolving landscape of ADR and ODR, highlighting critical intersections of sovereignty, technological innovation, inclusivity, and mediation. As ADR continues to develop, these themes underscore the importance of adaptability, fairness, and strategic reforms in ensuring effective dispute resolution mechanisms.
We extend our heartfelt thanks to all our authors for their insightful and thought-provoking articles. We also express our gratitude to our President, Laleh Pandole, and our peer reviewers for their invaluable support and guidance.
Trina Mitra and Wyoma Chudasama 
Co-Editors in Chief 
King's College London ADR ODR Journal

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